Chinese ladies playing cuju, by the Ming Dynasty painter Du Jin The first Olympic games in the modern era, which were in were not open to women, but since then the number of women who have participated in the Olympic games have increased dramatically. With the victory of Napoleon less than twenty years later, physical education was reduced to military preparedness for boys and men. In Germany, the physical education of GutsMuths included girl's education. This included the measurement of performances of girls. This led to women's sport being more actively pursued in Germany than in most other countries. Women's sports in the late s focused on correct posture, facial and bodily beauty, muscles, and health.